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Performance Enhancers

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mc41 View Drop Down
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    Posted: 08 Jan 2010 at 2:32am
  • Adam Hamilton 
  • From:
  • Herald Sun 
  • January 07

  • EVIDENCE of snake venom being used as a performance enhancer in Australian racing has been uncovered.

    Harness Racing New South Wales chief executive Sam Nati has told the Herald Sun evidence had been found to confirm growing speculation in recent years.

    Snake venom, most notably cobra venom, is said to serve as a powerful painkiller by deadening a horse's joint or nerves. It is most effective on horses with niggling injuries.

    Several trainers, including internationally renowned thoroughbred trainer Patrick Biancone, have been disqualified or suspended for venom use in North American racing.

    "We got our hands on a sample about six weeks ago and sent it to the Australian Racing Forensic Laboratory to be analysed," Nati said.

    "Testing is continuing on the sample and the lab says from its experience it expects to confirm the presence of some type of venom."


    "It was given to us in a bottle with a viper's head on the label," he said.Nati would not reveal the source of the sample.

    "There were a range of ingredients on the label, but venom wasn't one of them."

    Nati described obtaining the sample as a major breakthrough in Australia racing's fight against drug use.

    "We believe viper, or some type of snake venom, has been used in Australia, but we don't have any positive swabs to confirm it," he said.

    "It cannot be detected in swabs at the moment, but the lab tells me they will have test kit for it this year.

    "This is a significant breakthrough because there has been so much rumour and innuendo about snake venom for so long, but we've never had anything to go on."

    Racing Victoria chairman of stewards Terry Bailey, a crusader against prohibited substance use in racing, spoke at length with Nati yesterday about HRNSW's findings.

    Bailey said he had also talked to Dr John Vine, the head of Racing Analytical Services, Victoria's testing laboratory.

    "Dr Vine also said a testing kit was expected to be available this year," he said.

    "Apparently it's been developed in South Australia and is now having the finishing touches put on it over in the US."



    Edited by Gay3 - 10 Feb 2019 at 7:04pm
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    early4lunch View Drop Down
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote early4lunch Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08 Jan 2010 at 2:44am
    Hopefully they won't announce when testing is ready so nobody can use it until then
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Gay3 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08 Jan 2010 at 3:12am
    Or better still, say it won't be ready 'till late in the year but in reality, start testing several months earlier LOL. Might sort a few out Clap
    Experience is something you gain a few minutes after you could have used it!
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote scoot Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08 Jan 2010 at 6:26am
    how the hell did sam nati get the job as harness racing nsw CEO? has he ever run a business before, let alone a multi million dollar business.
     
    no wonder racing is stufed in australia if they keep hiring people with no management skills to run the show.
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote icare Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 Jan 2010 at 5:46am
    yeah no wonder harness racing is stuffed- Drug cheats and the earth worms that eat of the spoils are the reason. U egotistc retard bastards have not only stuff racing but u have damaged our breeding, made it imposible 4 the hobby training to continue, bred an atmosphere of contempt and idolised false heroes. When our floor is as dirty as it is and believe me it is filthy- we must open it right up and sweep the place clean and cull hard. Big names believe that they desserve an ammensty and idiots that copy believe that the industry cannt afford the exposure- well think again and think real hard because we cann't afford what is happening now -breeding numbers down , race numbers declining. Clean the game up and debate heavily having nil tolerance on drugs such as Viper and EPO - maybe the RSCPA should take more of an interest on this practice. And as for the galloping industry ALWAYS saying there is no evidience in their code -BULLgelati!!
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote runtowin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 Jan 2010 at 6:00am
    Icare nice first post and I couldn't agree with you more on all counts and the same goes for all the big guns in gallops-NO amnesty, you chose that path pay the penalty. They should also be charged with bringing disrepute to the industry (if thats the right context!) At least harness racing went back and tested old samples when blue magic was discovered where gallops racing said they couldn't. Piss weak.
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Fair Embrace Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 Jan 2010 at 7:42am
    Trainers have been using snake venom as an anti bleeding treatment for years
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote icare Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 Jan 2010 at 9:26am
    Yes fair embrace snake venom has been in use for years.Off goes our clever elite Trainer to the big USA to learn and see they say and how true are those words and back they come with new knowledge and contacts on something new that will give them the edge- what great horseman they are how clever and in tune with their animal- and they are only helping the animal , keeping their owners interest -crap - they need to feed themselves this story and any other silly fool who is in capable of doing some reading and thinking. This is dangerous, hidious cowboy practices- it is not training and they are certainly no horsemen. EPIH stumbles alot of horses change your training practices and stop asking your horses to do the impossible with illlegal enhancers(horse have and do die from these practices) and start training -if you can. Heres the truth - they cannt train , they dont listen to their horse they dont look at their horse-they dream of glory  and they are horse KILLERS, CHEATS and LOSERS. I am ashamed of my industry, ashamed at what it has become , ashamed at the weak excuses and inhumanity it is breeding. Racing people are no longer the salt of the earth, colurful characters with a heart of gold -no we are fools who believe we are wise.
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Bi Carb Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 Jan 2010 at 4:50pm
    Beautifuly put Icare , you obviously care..
     
    It is funny how a few of our huge empire trainers have been totally slowed to a walk in the past couple of seasons and are just making up the numbers these days.
    A lot of  big names gone missing in both Melb and Sydney in last couple of years it seems.
     
    Icare is right , a lot of these creeps would eat their own in the pursuit of success , they stop at nothing and good training is a figment of peoples imagination.
     
    Both codes are equally as bad , in fact i would suggest tb are worse because of the bigger money on offer.
     
    Some very good points ther Icare.
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote Gay3 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 Feb 2019 at 7:04pm
    Maybe timely to resuscitate this thread Wink

    editor

    Michael Harper for redOrbit.com

    Here´s one for the “weird” column…

    Horse trainers have been allegedly juicing up their horses with a performance-enhancing drug with an interesting origin: a frog´s back.

    As for how the connection was made between horse racing and frog jumping, the world may never know.

    According to the New York Times, racing regulators had been hearing reports about this kind of activity happening in darkened stables, but after months of post-race testing, no trace of painkillers or PEDs could be found. That is, until a lab in Denver changed the way they tested for these drugs. Now, more than 30 horses from 4 states have tested positive for the froggy substance.

    While trainers haven´t been formally charged, the race regulators expect it to happen sooner rather than later.

    Called “dermorphin,” the frog juice is said to be 40 times more powerful than morphine, helping the horses run even faster.

    As it´s such as potent drug, able to affect the outcome of a race, the regulators are saying the use of dermorphin could be considered one of the industry´s most serious drug violations.

    Director of testing at Louisiana State University, Dr. Steven Baker, gave the New York Times the money-quote: “We hear about some pretty exotic stuff. Frog juice – this is exotic.”

    While these kinds of drug scandals are (sadly) commonplace in other sports, such as baseball and football, this news comes as the industry is trying to separate themselves from this kind of behavior.

    Try as they might, these latest accusations of frog juicing are just the latest in a long line of illegal PEDs which have been found in racetracks.

    For instance, Cobra Venom has also been found in post-race tests. This venom is said to act as a nerve block, deadening any pain the horses may feel. The less pain a horse feels, the faster they are inclined to run.

    Instead of acting as a nerve block, dermorphin is a pain suppressant, which allows the horses to run harder than they normally would. According to Craig W. Stevens, professor of pharmacology at Oklahoma State University, dermorphin makes the horses “hyper.”

    “For a racehorse, it would be beneficial,” he told the Times. “The animal wouldn´t feel pain, and it would have feelings of excitation and euphoria.”

    Those entrepreneurial readers should take note: Dermorphin isn´t found on your run-of-the-mill frog. The substance is found on the South American native commonly referred to as the “Waxy Monkey Tree Frog.”

    Dr. Barker believes, however, that dermorphin has now been synthesized and can be manufactured artificially.

    “There´s a lot out there, and that would be an awful lot of frogs that would have to be squeezed,” he told the Times.

    “There are a lot of unemployed chemists out there.”

    Not only is it not yet known how often these trainers are doping their horses with frog juice, only a handful of states have the capability of testing for this substance. So far, horses from Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexico and  possibly Texas have tested positive for dermorphin frog juice.

    “This whole thing has really taken us by surprise,” said Charles A. Gardiner III, executive director of the Louisiana Racing Commission.

    “It couldn´t have come at a worse time. We´re fighting back federal intervention. We´re under attack and losing our fan base. Fans believe that the sport is dirty, that there is cheating. And here we have an obvious attempt to cheat.”

    So, how effective is dermorphin in these race horses?

    “A lot of money´s got to be given back,” said Mr. Gardiner.

    They Shoot Horses Full of Drugs, Don’t They?

    Here are the ways to get a horse more juiced up than the starting lineup of the 1970s Oakland Raiders.

    People have been pumping horses full of substances to get them to run faster as long as they’ve been sitting on top of horses and racing them against other horses for money. The difference between a win and a place can be literally a nose, so it makes sense that trainers would use everything at their disposal to give their horses an edge. Many—including myself—would argue that these enhancements, along with gelatity breeding, have been the largest contributor to the decline of the thoroughbred horse and the 34-year Triple Crown drought. Just like “Mean people make little mean people,” as the saying goes, “Unsound horses breed little unsound horses.” Covering up lameness issues with drugs only contributes to that factor—but that’s not stopping anyone from juicing up horses like they’re the 1970s Oakland Raiders. Here are a few of the more common methods for enhancing horse performance.

    Frog Juice
    The New York Times just reported that upwards of 30 racehorses were found to be dosed with dermorphin, which is an ultra-powerful painkiller found in the skin secretions of South America’s waxy monkey tree frog. Frog juice also induces feelings of excitement and euphoria, which—actually, gelati, that sounds like a ton of fun, but it’s bad news for horses who don’t get to choose to do it. This type of drugging is so new to the sport, most tracks do not have the capability to test for it, leaving one to assume that those 30 horses on “Kermit”—that’s the slang for it I just made up—are just the tip of the iceberg. (If you like to visualize your metaphors, imagining an iceberg made of horses is pretty fun.)

    Cobra Venom
    In 2007, the Kentucky Horse Racing Authority suspended trainer Patrick Biancone for one year when a raid of his barn turned up several vials of crystalized cobra venom. While this might sound like some badass Indiana Jones type gelati, cobra venom is extremely dangerous to horses—like Kermit, cobra venom is way, way stronger than morphine. Trainers inject the venom in very small doses under the skin when a horse is in pain, and the horse can then literally run till his leg falls apart. Because this drug rarely leaves a trace in urine and blood tests, a trainer pretty much needs to be caught red-handed, a la Biancone, to be found out.

    Cocaine
    While blow is not nearly as commonly used by horses as it is by their jockey counterparts due to routine testing, I would be remiss in excluding booger sugar from this list. The effect on horses is exactly the same as it is on yourself, except horses won’t close-talk you about how “groundbreaking” Mission of Burma was for three hours.

    Milkshakes
    Everyone loves milkshakes, especially my fat ass, but the equine version is not the kind you get at Steak and Shake at 3 AM. The type of milkshake I’m talking about consists of baking soda, sugar, and electrolytes, and it gets delivered though a tube shoved up the horse’s nose. (People don’t do this for fun—this fights fatigue caused by racing.) This is pretty common—just last month, trainer Doug O’Neill, who recently made headlines with his Kentucky Derby and Preakness-winning horse I’ll Have Another was handed a 45-day suspension in California when one of his horses tested positive for elevated levels of CO2, a common side effect of milkshaking.

    Viagra
    Turns out this little blue pill does more than give your dad the boner he needs to satisfy your mom. Sildenafil (the science-y name for Viagra) improves the cardiovascular, nervous, and reproductive systems in horses, and there’s been research indicating that Viagra can be an effective therapy for Laminitis, a lethal foot condition in horses, by improving blood flow to the feet. (Viagra improves blood flow in humans, too—except it’s the blood flowing to your dad’s dick moments before he bangs your mom.) While Sildenafil does seem to have some medicinal qualities and is allowed as a treatment for certain ailments in horses, it’s banned on race days because it enhances horses’ performance—again, just like it enhances the performance of your dad’s wiener as he pumps it in and out of your momma.

    Anabolic Steroids
    Horse trainers have been juicing their horses for ages, and anabolic steroids weren’t banned in Kentucky, California, or New York until a few years ago. These are the exact same kind of ‘roids that athletes have been using to smash homeruns and win the Tour de France. How prevalent are ‘roids? Rick Dutrow Jr., a trainer who is currently appealing a ten-year suspension in New York and has been fined or suspended more than 72 times for medication violations, has openly admitted that he administered steroids to many of his horses including 2008 Kentucky Derby winner Big Brown. Good luck with that appeal Ricky!


    Experience is something you gain a few minutes after you could have used it!
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote linghi11 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11 Feb 2019 at 11:00am
    Is there a synthetic Chinese version out there...
    to the victor
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote acacia alba Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11 Feb 2019 at 11:22am
    Ask DK or his mate ??
    animals before people.
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    Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote skippy123 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22 Mar 2019 at 5:03am
    EPO: What We Know, And What We Don’t, About The Blood-Doping Threat
    SPONSORED BY:
    by Natalie Voss | 03.20.2019 | 2:51pm

    Adobe Stock image
    When Lance Armstrong confessed in 2013 to taking Epogen to boost production of oxygen-carrying red blood cells, horse racing fans began looking behind every tree for the boogeyman called erythropoietin, or EPO. Many had long suspected EPO had risen to prominence in horse racing in the 1990s alongside anabolic steroids, and news that one of cycling's biggest stars was using it seemed to cement the idea it could be lurking anywhere – even at the top levels of the sport.

    Thanks in part to Armstrong, many people have a basic idea of how EPO works. EPO is produced naturally by the kidneys of all mammals and signals the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. More red blood cells mean increased hemoglobin, which is responsible for carrying oxygen. In the 1980s, a man-made version of EPO (recombinant EPO) was developed as a treatment for anemic patients who could not circulate enough EPO to keep their red blood cells at a safe level. Today, FDA-approved forms of EPO for humans include Epogen, Aranesp, Retacrit, and Procrit. When given to healthy people, however, the synthetic EPO boosts red blood cells to higher-than-normal levels, allowing athletes better endurance.

    Most racing insiders who have some idea of what EPO does also know that it has been favored by human athletes in part because it's difficult to test for. Like anabolic steroids, EPO's competitive advantage lies in its ability to boost the body's natural production of certain materials, but unlike anabolics, the drug itself disappears from the body quickly. One set of instructions written by a still-practicing veterinarian and provided to the Paulick Report in 2015 suggested the drug was given in repeated injected doses, often along with iron, for maximum effectiveness.

    The first tests for EPO were developed in the early 2000s — so where do we stand now in our ability to catch trainers engaging in blood doping? And what's on the horizon for both cheaters and regulators?

    The modern testing process

    Currently, getting an EPO positive (and there have been a few over the years) is a two-step process. Testing laboratories use an ELISA kit test to screen for it and then forward a split sample to a more advanced lab, which performs mass spectronomy testing to confirm. The confirmation testing is a multi-day procedure that must be performed by technicians with specialized advanced training.


    Dr. Richard Sams, former laboratory director at LGC Sport Science Lab in Lexington, Ky., said the ELISA kit test used for screening was based on detecting human EPO, which is most of what seems to be available on the market. The good news is he believes the ELISA kit could detect all types of human EPO commercially available. The bad news is, it focuses on human EPO.

    All mammals make EPO naturally, and roughly 80 percent of the molecule is the same between horses and humans. Since EPO is incredibly expensive to produce and buy, it stood to reason cheaters would focus on giving to horses human EPO developed for sale to human athletes. (And yes, there are a number of dubious online outlets which claim to sell EPO or EPO-like products to horsemen, but these outlets are not regulated closely and there's a significant chance the products aren't what they claim to be.)

    In Sams' time at LGC, the lab's home base in Fordham, England, was responsible for EPO confirmation for the Kentucky lab (and a number of others). About two years ago, Sams recalled a smattering of tests with suspicious ELISA kit results which came back as no-confirmation from Fordham.

    “We [the Lexington lab] and Fordham routinely discussed findings, and the Fordham scientists who were responsible for confirmation analysis told us about the same time that we began sending these suspicious samples over that weren't confirmed, they were getting similar samples from other labs that could not be confirmed,” Sams recalled.

    Because of the chemical construction of human EPO, it must have three particular peptides on its sequence to come up on both ELISA kit and confirmation analysis. (Naturally produced EPO in horses has always been different enough that it doesn't produce a positive on either test, so there's no fear of a horse's own EPO causing an accidental positive.) Sams could only suppose someone had begun using a type of EPO that was similar enough to human EPO to flag one test without fulfilling the other — perhaps EPO derived from another species. There have been no new forms of EPO approved for therapeutic use in humans in recent years, so whatever it is, it's not coming through a Food and Drug Administration-approved channel, which raises its own questions about product safety. We still don't know what product caused those unconfirmed tests, or where it came from.

    “I'd be surprised if anything was made clandestinely for the racing market, but there may very well have been something made clandestinely for human athletic competition,” said Sams.

    It's understood that some drugs, such as dermorphin, can be edited in their chemical makeup to evade tests. Sams said he doesn't worry about that so much with EPO.

    “It would be exceedingly difficult,” he said. “I think the bigger risk is making horse EPO or presumably you could use other kinds of EPO that are different from human and horse which produce an EPO-like effect. Any time you would switch from one EPO to another, the labs would have to develop a new test.”



    What are the risks?

    Administering EPO of any sort to a horse also comes with risk. Although human EPO molecules are 80 percent identical to horse EPO, that last 20 percent can set off alarm bells in the equine body. Some horses recognize the substance as a foreign invader and begin producing antibodies to attack it. In some cases, the immune response can be so severe that the horse's body also begins producing antibodies to its own EPO, resulting in anemia. Anemia isn't particularly common in fit, healthy horses but if it's left untreated, it can be a long, slow death.

    And what about the rumored use of poisons and other blood thinners to counteract overenthusiastic EPO administration? EPO use in humans is believed to sometimes result in blood which has become too thick from hematocrit, resulting in circulation problems. Hematocrit is the ratio of red blood cells to total blood volume.

    Railbirds have long theorized positive tests for blood-thinning agents may be explained by some attempt on the part of trainers or veterinarians to balance out the effects of blood doping. There's one problem with that, Sams said: Horses have contractile spleens, which store large amounts of red blood cells and release them at times of stimulation, such as the start of a race or as part of a startle response. When this happens, the hematocrit rises significantly. The equine body has obviously figured out how to cope without encountering circulation issues, though we don't know how exactly. (This is one more reason detection is difficult – testing can't conclude for sure if a horse's hematocrit level is high because of a recent spleen contraction or because of an EPO administration – at least, not yet.)

    Because we don't know how the equine body may deal with elevated hematocrit, we don't know whether those blood-thinners are given intentionally to horses receiving EPO, or whether they're safe or effective.



    How common is EPO use?

    Without a better way to detect EPO, we really don't know how commonly it may be given to racehorses. The ELISA kit test used by laboratories these days can detect recent administrations of the drug, but anyone looking to boost performance would need to give EPO and then wait several weeks for it to take full effect – at which time it's long gone from the bloodstream. Post-race testing is not likely to encounter it, although Sams knew of a few instances where it was found in post-race samples from harness racing in Maine, likely due to the frequency of races for that population.

    Dr. Mary Scollay, equine medical director for the Kentucky Horse Racing Commission, said she has no idea how common it really is, but she does get questions about it.

    “We certainly hear about it,” she said. “It has been detected in a couple of cases in recent history. There are people who believe its use is profligate and others who say 'I don't think so.' And I can't answer the question.”

    Dr. Mark Cheney, board member of the Kentucky Equine Drug Research Council (KEDRC), suspects the use has become more common than people want to believe. Cheney has been outspoken in meetings of the KEDRC over the effectiveness of EPO testing more so than any other performance-enhancing substance. Cheney is also disturbed by the volume of distributors marketing EPO-like products on the Internet.

    “It is, I would say, just about epidemic use in our industry,” he said in an Oct. 2, 2018, meeting of the KEDRC. “Some trainers, I'm not going to mention any names, their horses are just rebreaking at the eighth pole.

    “We're never going to be able to test for these products … if we have just an inkling of research to show we can identify someone that's using an epogenic product, as soon as you put that on the front page of the Lexington Herald-Leader, they'll stop using it. There's probably some pretty important people in this business that have done it.”



    What do we do about it?

    Given the low likelihood of finding EPO in a post-race test, experts say there are two ways its use can be curbed. The easier and quicker of the two options is increased out-of-competition testing (OOCT). Many – but not all — states have rule language allowing OOCT, though having rules permitting it and having the funding for extra laboratory tests are two separate issues.

    Sams points out that in some jurisdictions where OOCT is common, it's not a good idea to make its scheduling too predictable. In many cases, trainers may learn how far out from a race the OOCT sample will be collected and administer long-acting performance-enhancing drugs like EPO immediately after the sample has been taken. Sams suggests regulators take OOCT samples and return in two to three days to take another set. EPO can be detectable for an average of two to four days after administration, up to a week in some cases.

    The more effective form of testing is still far off. There is ongoing research into the creation of equine biological passports. They look for unusual changes in proteins or other biomarkers in the blood in response to drugs like EPO or anabolic steroids, which produce artificial levels of natural cells.

    “Biological passports have been used very successfully in human testing to detect EPO,” said Sams. “It does not work in horses for a number of reasons, one of which is the ability of the horse to store red blood cells in the spleen and the ability to then release them. We don't see a lot of stability in hematocrit and hemoglobin because the horse can release those red blood cells when it's being handled before the blood sample is collected.”

    Reticulocytes are another key giveaway in human biological passports — they act as a type of signal that a new round of red blood cells are being made. Horses don't produce them as part of this process.

    The Racing Medication and Testing Consortium recently funded two studies to improve detection of EPO, which executive director Dr. Dionne Benson hopes will result in tenfold or greater detection sensitivity.

    In 2018, the Kentucky Equine Drug Research Council gave funding to an ongoing project from the lab of Dr. Scott Stanley to explore biological passports for horses. Earlier this year, the group provided a grant to Dr. Heather Knych of the University of California-Davis to look at changes in gene expression following microdosing of EPO. Scollay hopes the work could lead to a new type of monitoring.

    “I think this potentially provides an investigative tool to run some facts against the speculation,” said Scollay. “It is not a standalone enforcement tool. It would identify a sample for a confirmatory analysis for EPO. You don't hang your hat on a screening test, but on the other hand, there's nothing wrong with a screening test triggering some information gathering.”

    If successful, Knych's research cannot tell a regulator that a horse has gotten EPO, only that its results are out of the ordinary and it may be helpful to do more investigation.

    “I would definitely say that this is only a first step,” Knych echoed.

    There's another challenge with EPO detection from biological passports — in Kentucky and probably elsewhere: Scollay has raised concerns about the phrasing of Kentucky's rules. They prohibit the finding of “a drug, medication or substance” and “substances present in the horse in excess of concentrations at which the substances could occur naturally.”

    Biomarkers don't fit into either category.

    “Right now, our regulations require the unequivocal identification of a molecule in the horse to determine it carried that prohibited substance,” Scollay said at an October meeting of the Kentucky Equine Drug Research Council. “I'm not sure how the attorneys across the country, or in Lexington, are going to feel about prosecuting a case based on indirect evidence of a substance having been in the horse at some point. I know USADA is able to do some of that, but we're government agencies as opposed to a sports club.

    “I think we're in the early stages of this; there's an awful lot to learn about this substance in the horse.”


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    This entry was posted in NL Article, Ray's Paddock and tagged Dr. Heather Knych, dr. mark cheney, Dr. Mary Scollay, dr. rick sams, drugs in racing, epo, erythropoietin, Kentucky Equine Drug Research Council, Lance Armstrong by Natalie Voss. Bookmark the permalink.
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