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Gastric Ulcers

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skippy123 View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote skippy123 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 Aug 2019 at 7:03am
Bute vs. Firocoxib: Which NSAID Results in More Severe Gastric Ulcers?

Both NSAIDs induced GI tract inflammation, but phenylbutazone might result in more severe inflammation in the lower GI tract.
Posted by Clair Thunes, PhD | Aug 12, 2019 | AAEP Convention 2017, Digestive System, Digestive Tract Problems, Medications, Nutrition, Ulcers
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Bute vs. Firocoxib: Which NSAID Results in More Severe Gastric Ulcers?
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the second-most frequently used drug class in horses after dewormers. Veterinarians prescribe them for a wide range of issues ranging from post-surgical recovery to orthopedic issues. While they’re invaluable for managing horses’ pain, one of their side effects is gastric ulcers.

A group of researchers from Texas A&M University recently compared two types of NSAIDs’ effects on gastric ulceration in horses. Lauren M. Richardson, DVM, a resident in large animal surgery at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, presented their findings at the 2017 American Association of Equine Practitioners convention, held Nov. 17-21 in San Antonio, Texas.

But first, let’s review how NSAIDs work.

These drugs work by reducing prostaglandins–chemicals in the body that promote inflammation, pain, and fever. Prostaglandins are produced by enzymes called cyclooxygenases (COX), of which there are two main types: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is a constitutive enzyme, meaning that it is “on” most of the time, performing functions such as protecting the stomach lining and promoting blood clotting. COX-2, on the other hand, is an inducible enzyme produced under certain circumstances in response to cytokines (inflammatory mediators), resulting in inflammation, pain, and fever.

When veterinarians administer NSAIDs that block prostaglandin formation, stomach acid can damage the stomach tissue, potentially causing gastric ulcers. Fortunately, COX-2-selective NSAIDs exist that only block COX-2 prostaglandin production. However, we don’t know whether these COX-2-selective NSAIDs actually cause less gastrointestinal (GI) injury than the nonselective NSAIDs.

Richardson’s team compared the effects of firocoxib (a COX-2-selective NSAID) and phenylbutazone (a nonselective NSAID) on gastric ulceration in adult horses. They used fecal myeloperoxidase (MPO, a protein released during acute inflammation) as a marker of lower GI tract injury.

They randomly assigned 10 adult horses to one of each of the treatment groups (firocoxib administered at 0.1 mg/kg once a day or phenylbutazone administered at 4.4 mg/kg once a day) and five horses to a control group that received a placebo treatment. The team administered treatments for 10 days and collected fecal samples on Days 0, 10, and 20. They also scoped the horses for gastric ulcers on Days 0 and 10.

In looking at the results, horses in both treatment groups had significantly higher squamous gastric ulceration scores (in the upper region of the stomach) than the horses in the control group at Day 10. Similarly, both treatments resulted in significantly more ulcers in the glandular (bottom) portion of the stomach than in controls. However, said Richardson, on Day 10 horses receiving phenylbutazone had significantly more severe glandular ulcers than the horses given firocoxib.

She also noted that fecal MPO increased with both treatments but was only statistically significant in the horses given phenylbutazone. Because MPO is derived from neutrophils, the type of white blood cell involved in NSAID-induced intestinal injury in other species, these results suggest that GI disease caused by administration of NSAIDs is neutrophil-driven in the horse, said Richardson.

So while both phenylbutazone and firocoxib induced GI inflammation and injury, glandular ulcers were more severe and fecal MPO levels greater in the horses receiving phenylbutazone. These results suggest that firocoxib’s effects were less severe, said Richardson.


Edited by Gay3 - 13 Aug 2019 at 8:19am
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote mc41 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 Aug 2019 at 8:08pm
How many horses in work eat from a feed bin low down V’s bin hanging on door ?
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote linghi11 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 Aug 2019 at 10:25pm
Has anyone trialed an oil-heavy/low-grain diet to combat ulcers?
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Gastric ulcers in racehorses: treatment options to try
Most racehorses experience this painful condition at some point — here's how to help.
source-image
Mar 01, 2010
By Ed Kane, PhD
DVM360 MAGAZINE
12Next

Gastric ulceration is an extremely common ailment in Thoroughbred racehorses and can be a performance-limiting disease. When they're young, most racehorses have normal stomachs, but once they begin training, most will develop ulcers.

Indeed, race training has been shown to increase the prevalence and severity of ulceration, sometimes in as little as three months after being introduced to the racetrack, according to one study. The unique conditions found in a racetrack's backstage environment predispose racing Thoroughbreds to ulcers. Those conditions include the feeding regimen, stresses of confinement and intense training and racing regimens. All have been indicated as factors leading to an increased incidence of gastric ulcers.

"Prevalence of ulceration in Thoroughbred racehorses is very high. In my experience, it's around 85 percent to 90 percent, and probably reaches 100 percent at some point in a horse's career," says Bryan Young, DVM, of Young Equine Services, Cypress, Texas.

Signs of gastric ulceration in adult racehorses include poor eating and body condition, weight loss and, in some instances, poor racing performance.
A few nonpharmacologic treatments can reduce the signs and incidence of gastric ulceration in some racehorses. However, the primary treatment is pharmacologic suppression of gastric acid secretion, most effectively dosed daily.

The importance of diet

The horse is meant to be a continuous feeder, says Young. The roughage it eats helps to buffer low pHs, which begin the ulceration process.

Scott Hay, DVM, notes that the horse's penchant for grazing means it is a constant gastric-acid secretor. "But we want to feed them 'meals,' and necessarily so in some instances," notes Hay, a veterinarian at Teigland, Franklin and Brokken, DVMs, P.A., in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. He says in essence that it would be difficult to keep racehorses at a high level of nutrition without allowing them constant access to roughage, yet that constant feeding may lead to ulcerations.

Horses simply don't get the same benefits from constant grazing as they do when being fed meals of grain, he continues. "That's why people try to keep hay in front of them constantly. If they're being fed grain meals, they don't eat all the time and don't pick and graze as they would do in the wild," he continues. "Having the constant exposure to gastric acid secretion means they're prone to ulcers."

Type of diet and amount of roughage fed may play a role in the induction of ulcers. Feeding hay alone increases postprandial gastrin concentrations, and feeding pellets or grain may result in a larger increase in postprandial serum gastrin, which implies increased gastric acid secretion. Hay and grain contain varying amounts of fermentable carbohydrates, converted by bacteria to volatile fatty acids (VFAs). It has been shown that VFAs at low stomach pH may penetrate the mucosa and cause local acidification, inflammation and ulcers. Adding a good protein source such as alfalfa hay and a higher calcium content to the feed may help buffer stomach acid. Not continuously feeding a horse or depriving it of food for long periods (e.g., 48 hours) also may induce ulcer formation.

Young notes that racehorses need a high-protein feed just as human athletes need a high-caloric intake. He suggests that trainers and owners balance a racehorse's high-protein feed with a lower protein feed that also will help to buffer acidic components. This could include different types of oats, perhaps a pellet for horses that are more susceptible. Young says alfalfa hay has been shown to help in buffering stomachs, not in causing ulceration as had been assumed in the past.

A break in the training regimen

Hard and frequent training may be another reason racehorses are prone to gastric ulcerations. Young notes, "We've seen that ulcerations will heal in a relatively short period of time, 30 days or so, with rest from the racetrack."

Hay recalls working with one filly that was unable to consistently keep weight on. "She didn't eat well at certain times. She was a top-quality horse and raced in stakes company. She wasn't winning, but she was very competitive," he remembers.

"The trainer decided to give her some time off, not only because of her ulcer problem, but also for some foot issues. They assumed she had the ulcer issues, though they were never diagnosed definitely by esophagogastroscopy. But they always assumed she had them by her body weight and eating habits. They turned her out on a farm, treated her with gastric ulcer medication and gave her three months off. And she started to look great."

The horse was put back into training, but her signs returned. Hay administered omeprazole for two months, and she won four stakes races in a row. "She just needed to be kept on medication to compete right, be able to eat constantly, keep her weight on and be at the top of her game," Hay says.

He calls her a poster-horse for treatment of gastric ulcers and how racehorses can be kept performing at top level by taking care of the underlying gastric problem.
Pharmacotherapy options

At the racetrack, Hay says, veterinarians give medications such as phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that tend to reduce horses' defense mechanisms to other diseases and conditions and, thus, predispose them to ulcers. Meanwhile, the objective of pharmacologic treatment of ulcers in racehorses is to make them feel better, eliminate clinical signs, promote healing and prevent recurrence so the horses eat well, maintain good weight and stay competitive.

To decrease gastric acidity, treatment options include H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors. The H2-receptor antagonists block the interaction of histamine with H2 receptors on the parietal cell, decreasing hydrochloric acid secretion. They also partially inhibit feed- and pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion.

Proton pump inhibitors block gastric acid secretion via irreversible inhibition of hydrogen-potassium ATPase, the final enzymatic step in the acid secretory pathway.
Other possible drug therapies include synthetic prostaglandins, mucosal protectants and antacids, the latter of which neutralize stomach acid usually via a mixture of aluminum and magnesium hydroxides. Young also recommends buffering agents, corrective suspensions and various magnesium hydroxide products such as Pepto-Bismol or GastroCote (bismuth subsalicylate). "If given daily, we see at least some cessation of signs. We don't think we're going to cure ulceration with those products, but at least the horse will feel and eat better and, subsequently, will perform better," he notes.

All of that said, however, Young points to omeprazole as the "first line of defense" in his equine practice. "We feel that GastroGard, a proton pump inhibitor, has the best results. Unfortunately, it is expensive. A lot of clients simply cannot afford a daily tube of GastroGard, which can run veterinary bills up to $1,000 per month, just for trying to keep ulceration away."

He also uses compounded omeprazole, but cautions that he doesn't see the same level of results as with the GastroGard. "But we do see some results and some cessation of signs," he says. "And from a financial perspective, our clients like compounded omeprazole more on a daily basis."

If esophagogastroscopy finds significant ulcerations, Young strongly recommends that GastroGard be administered.

Conclusion

Controlling gastric ulcerations in racehorses is a complex process —one that requires reduced training, a change in feeding regimen and perhaps pharmacologic administration.

Ed Kane, PhD, is a researcher and consultant in animal nutrition. He is also an author and editor on nutrition, physiology and veterinary medicine with a background in horses, pets and livestock. Kane is based in Seattle.
“Where in this wide world can man find nobility without pride, friendship without envy, or beauty without vanity? Here where grace is laced with muscle and strength by gentleness confined”
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4. Consider adding some alfalfa chaff to your horse's feed to increase the buffering potential of the ration. 100-200 grams/ 100 Kg BW is suitable

5. If your horse requires more calories in the ration to support body condition consider 'topping up' the ration withEQUI-JEWEL®, a high fat, rice bran supplement which boosts the calorie content of the ration without excessive cereal intake and without increasing the meal size

Equi-Jewel webEQUI-JEWEL® is pelleted, high oil, stabilised rice bran supplement designed to increase the energy density of the whole diet, thereby decreasing the reliance on cereals in the diet. EQUI-JEWEL® is also an ideal product to improve topline and condition on your horse. The essential fatty acids contained in EQUI-JEWEL® are necessary for healthy coat and skin condition. In addition to improved condition, research has proven its superiority in optimising performance. EQUI-JEWEL® is fortified with the correct level of Vitamin E and ensures optimum calcium to phosphorus ratio

6. When adding additional liquid oil to the ration, make sure that you check the antioxidant status ofthe ration e.g. Vitamin E.

7. Provide as much pasture turnout as is practically possible

8. Provide constant access to water

9. Look at ways of helping to reduce stress levels.RiteTrac SmallBucket small

10.Consider using antacid supplements such as KERx RiteTrac™ to help protect the digestive systemfrom gastric lesions. RiteTrac™ is a proprietary blend of ingredients with fast acting antacids,buffers and coating agents to help optimise pH in the stomach, as well as the inclusion of ahindgut buffer to aid digestion. Available as a powder in 3kg and 6kg tubs, RiteTrac can be simplyadded to feed at a rate of 120g/day – 60g in the morning and 60g in the evening.
“Where in this wide world can man find nobility without pride, friendship without envy, or beauty without vanity? Here where grace is laced with muscle and strength by gentleness confined”
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KERx RiteTrack is not currently available in Australia as far as I can tell.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote Second Chance Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14 Aug 2019 at 4:10pm
The following is an extract from THE HORSE -J Warren Evans. I sleep with this book under my bible and receive electronic updates on a regular basis.  It essentially supports what Sister Dot has posted:

Prevention and Treatment

As always, prevention is preferable to treatment. We have described some common risk factors that can contribute to the formation of gastric ulcers in horses. The following management techniques may assist in preventing ulcers:

·         Feed horses frequently or on a free-choice basis (pasture). This helps to buffer the acid in the stomach and stimulate saliva production, nature’s best antacid.

·         Reduce the amount of grain and concentrates and/or add alfalfa hay to the diet. Discuss any feed changes with your veterinarian so that medical conditions can be considered.

·         Avoid or decrease the use of anti-inflammatory drugs. If anti-inflammatory drugs must be given, consider newer ones such as firocoxib, if appropriate.

·         Limit stressful situations such as intense training and frequent transporting.

·         If horses must be stalled, allow them to see and socialize with other horses as well as have access to forage.

Acid pump inhibitors such as omeprazole and pantoprasole stop gastric acid secretion completely.  Other effective types of drugs for the treatment of ulcers are the histamine type 2 (H-2) receptor blockers such as cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine, which partially block acid production.


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Second Chance Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14 Aug 2019 at 4:11pm
Well I actually sleep with it under my bed.  Embarrassed
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote Isaac soloman Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14 Aug 2019 at 7:32pm
Didnt think of you SC as a bible reader. Pt will be impressed LOL

Always impressed with vision of american racehorses in their stables and the HUGE hay nets the horses have free access to 

Goats and Horses: A Natural Pair at the Racetrack

THE LIFE
August 4th, 2019

Goats can have a calming influence on nervous or skittish racehorses and make terrific companions around the barn. (BENOIT photo)

Del Mar Thoroughbred Club story/Tere Albanese

When you think of goats, you usually think of them being on a farm and/or being used for their milk. But they’ve also been known to be pets and — at the racetrack — a friend for a horse in need.

Horse trainer Dan Hendricks has a goat at his barn named Jack. He is one of the larger breeds of goat with big horns and he just might butt you if you make him mad, or show any fear. As far as what breed of goat he is, though, that’s up for grabs.

“He’s just a goat, Hendricks said.

He came from a farm in Solvang. 

“They had four babies,” explained Hendricks, “so they sent two to the track and we got him. The first time they had ever been touched was when they put them on the van and then got him off.  Jack was wild. We started feeding him by hand and in a month or so he came around.  And he’s been pretty good since.”

Hendricks was replacing a goat that got sick and passed away. He had a horse that needed a companion and Jack helped that one and then, when that horse went out, he switched him to another horse.

Goats can help nervous horses. They become their “barn buddies.”

Symptoms of a nervous horse can be walking or even running around in their stalls. They also can do what is called weaving, which is rocking side to side. Another symptom is “cribbing,” which is holding onto the parts of the stall, or pen, with their teeth and sucking in air. Often, they also will have poor appetites.

If a horse has any of these symptoms, that’s where a goat comes in.

Hendricks explains that goats give the horses something to think about, as well as a companion. Thoroughbred yearlings and 2-year-olds are kept in pastures on farms with other babies that they run and play with. Horses are herd animals. The horses lose these companions when they come to the track. So the goat can be a comfort to them.

But do they really like each other?

“Ahh, most of the time,” says Hendricks, “but sometimes the horses are indifferent to the goat, until you take the goat away from the horse. When you do that, the goat usually misses the horse more than the horse misses the goat. The horse will whinny and the goat will make goat sounds calling to the horse.”

Goats come in all sizes and shapes. The goat that Hendricks had before Jack was a short chubby goat, rather than a tall one like Jack.

Hendricks, like other trainers, has additional ways to try to calm certain horses.

“I’ll put horses stabled side-by-side together,” says Hendricks. “I’ll take out some of the boards between stalls so they can see each other and become buddies, just enough so they know there’s another horse right next to him. It’s similar to using a goat, though you can’t do it with colts or young babies. But the ones that you can do it with can get real dependent on another horse. That’s why using a goat is better.”

The benefits can be seen in half a day or it may take a week, but giving a nervous horse a companion goat is sometimes the very trick that’s needed. And when it works, the pair can truly bond.

Richard Mandella has trained horses for more than 45 years and has used his share of goats as pals along the way.

“Oh, they can really help a nervous horse; make a night-and-day difference,” the Hall of Fame conditioner said. “I’ve used them often with fillies or geldings who need to be calmed down. You don’t want to put them in with a colt or a stallion; they can get too rough.”

Mandella provided a history lesson on the origin of the term “got your goat.” He notes that it comes from racing in England centuries back when goats and horses were often companions. On occasion, a rival might want to unsettle a horse he’d have to face the following day, so he’d sneak into a barn and make off with the horse’s companion that night — thus, they “got your goat” and may have gotten their horse an edge in the process.

Trainer Shelbe Ruis has a miniature Nigerian dwarf goat who is still a baby, just three months old. His name is Kevin. Ruis had wanted a goat, specifically a small one rather than one of the bigger breeds. Kevin will probably grow a foot taller, and a lot wider. Right now, he’s about 12 inches at his shoulder. (Hendrick’s goat, Jack, is three feet at the shoulder.) Ruis plans to use Kevin for nervous horses.

Are goats smart? Well, little Kevin knows his name, and Ruis is training Kevin to wander around the barn with no supervision. He knows all the horses and the horses are comfortable with him coming up to their stalls. Ruis is new to having a goat. Kevin is her first. She found him at a farm in Santa Clarita. There’s a woman there that has a herd of 30-40 goats. Many of them are sold for producing milk, but they also make good pets.

According to Ruis, Kevin is great friends with her little dog Buster.

Trainer David Bernstein describes a filly he had that was very nervous: “Without her buddy, she would not only not stall walk, she wouldn’t eat, and she would paw and dig holes. But with her buddy they’d both stand there just as calm as they could be.”

Bernstein said other animals can also work, but goats are the best, which is why he’s used them for years.


Trainer Art Sherman’s goat Miss Theresa at the barn. (BENOIT photo)

Trainer Art Sherman, who race rode for 21 years and now has trained horses (including two-time Horse of the Year California Chrome) for more than 40 years, presently has a female goat in his barn called Miss Theresa, named for one of his former exercise riders. Got her as a baby for $100 in 2011 and she’s been a barn regular since.

“I’ve always believed in goats for nervous horses,” Sherman says. “Especially fillies. You get one that’s skittish and you team them up with a goat, next thing you know everyone is happy.”

Though a fair share of trainers use goats (a current estimate by the Del Mar Stable Office personnel is that somewhere between 25% to 40% of the trainers on the grounds have goats), some don’t.

Veteran trainer Bruce Headley, who for decades broke his own horses, said he never had problems with nervous horses and therefore he never needed goats. But he did recall a time when he had hens at the barn.

“They used to get up on the horses’ backs and scratch them. The horses liked it.”

Those who know the iconoclastic Headley would surely understand.

And, of course, to each his own.https://www.americasbestracing.net/lifestyle/2019-goats-and-horses-natural-pair-the-racetrack

Isaac, please check Preview before posting as many photos don't reproduce unless you 'copy image' or save to desktop then use Postimages.com



Edited by Gay3 - 14 Aug 2019 at 8:26pm
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Carioca Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14 Aug 2019 at 10:04pm
Lot of truth there as I've seen a few stables over the years have for that exact purpose, reminds me of the two goats at the tip chomping away and decided to split up and meet in an hour, after the hour was up his mate hadn't returned so he went looking and found him miles away chomping his head off " whatcha eating " he said to his mate , mate replied
" I'm eating the movie gone with the wind" " what's it like " he asked " not as good as the book " he said.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Jamal Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15 Aug 2019 at 12:32am
Rogan Josh had ulcers, and Bart realised these were troubling him. He fixed them and this went a long way to Rogan Josh's success in the spring of 1999
It's always good when a WA horse does well in the Eastern States or abroad.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Isaac soloman Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15 Aug 2019 at 10:36am
I always hit preview and i try many ways to get photos to happen.
 Feel free to include the photos yourself Gay. 


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote PhillipC Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15 Aug 2019 at 10:09pm
Horses are foragers by nature, so should never go without 'something' to nibble on for more than 2 hours.  The standard seems to be to feed a horse 2, maybe 3 times a day with the belief that this should suffice. 
There are slow feed hay nets available these days (much smaller holes than a normal hay net) which allows the horse to continually 'forage' throughout the day/night, without consuming too much hay.  The constant foraging keeps everything as nature intended and should reduce the instances of gastric ulceration due to feeding practices.
Hay types provided to the horse are irrelevant (eg. lucerne, clover, grass), as long as they are eating something.  
I have also heard of instances where horses given these slow feed hay nets can get frustrated with them due to them not being able to take a big mouthful.
If a horse is kept in a stable and only fed at 7 am and then again at 3 pm, it simply goes against how horses have evolved and is asking for these issues like gastric ulceration.
http://www.equinehaven.com.au
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Isaac soloman Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15 Aug 2019 at 10:39pm
It is true if the holes are too small some  wont try to use them.
Funny but true.

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